What is the cost of this program?
*After October 1, 1999, the cost for D.C.s is $225 each.
Make checks payable to: Sherman College of Straight Chiropractic
Why Come?The thrill of learning something
new, or gaining new insight into something you do every day, is one of the most rewarding
outcomes of intellectual discourse. Here, field D.C.s will present fascinating scientific
information within the context of how it applies to practice. Special sessions will
review research methods that can be used to collect data from your own patients.You
will learn the latest information about subluxation measures, how to demonstrate
the effectiveness of care and methods of researching the effects of vertebral subluxation
and hear from Robert Leach, D.C., author of the widely used textbook The Chiropractic
Courtyard by Marriott-864-585-2400
License Renewal Credit
Call the Sherman College
Continuing Education Department, 800-849-8771, ext. 1229, for specific state details.
Directions to Sherman CollegeFrom Greenville:
Take I-85 North, follow the bypass toward Charlotte. Take Exit 72-Inman and Spartanburg.
Turn left onto 176 toward Inman. At the first traffic light, turn right onto Springfield
Rd. Sherman College is approximately 1-1/2 miles on the right. The Chiropractic Health
Center is at street level and the Administrative Building is on top of the hill,
where visitor parking is available.From Charlotte: Take I-85 South, follow the bypass
toward Greenville. Take Exit 72-Inman and Spartanburg. Turn right onto 176 toward
Inman. At the first traffic light, turn right onto Springfield Rd. Sherman College
is approximately 1-1/2 miles on the right. The Chiropractic Health Center is at street
level and the Administrative Building is on top of the hill, where visitor parking
How do I register for this seminar?For fax or mail registration, click hereTo
register by phone call 800-849-8771, ext. 1229For more information, email firstname.lastname@example.org
FUNCTION TESTING OF UPPER CERVICAL MOTOR UNITSMichael J. Clemen D.C.Background: Chiropractic literature views the dysfunction of the upper cervical
motor unit as the component of the Subluxation Complex that is directly addressed
by the specific adjustment. Methods for accurately assessing the function of upper
cervical motor units immediately before and after adjustment interventions, allow
the practitioner to be more precise in achieving the most desirable treatment outcomes. Objective: This discussion describes an analysis method that combines computerized
compliance testing with motion palpation procedures. The purpose is to demonstrate
how it is possible to correlate findings of the two testing procedures to determine
probable level, side, and vectors of fixation. A flow chart is developed to help
integrate this method into individual technique systems.Discussion: The computerized compliance instrument and the method in which
information is collected is described. The examiner accepts the computer data for
level and side of involvement as accurate. Motion palpation is used as a manual
compliance test to analyze other fixation vectors.Conclusions: Computerized compliance testing has a high degree of inter- and
intra-examiner repeatability. It may be used with standard methods of motion palpation
to evaluate and monitor the kinetic component of the VSC. The findings may be combined,
resulting in a fixation subluxation listing based on movement dysfunction. Further
studies in this area may lead to correlation with x-ray listings used in various
techniques. With computerized recording and storage of data, this system delivers
reliable outcome assessment that is in line with classical chiropractic concepts.
Triaxial assessment of extreme end-range foot posture:
a novel method of leg checkingRobert Cooperstein and Joe Pigg
traditional chiropractic leg check assesses relative distal leg positions (Y-axis
translations) to identify subluxations and monitor outcomes. The tendency of the
feet to assume asymmetric rotational positions in dorsiflexion/plantarflexion, internal/external
rotation, and inversion/eversion, has been generally assumed to confound LLI determination,
often requiring the examiner to grasp the feet to manually remove these other asymmetries.
To test the assumption that these other elements of non-weight bearing foot posture
amount to mere noise, the investigators constructed a triaxial foot posturometer.
It consists of two orthogonally placed inclinometers and a compass mounted on a surgical
boot, screwed to a wood "footprint." The experimental protocol involved a blinded examiner taking the subject's feet to the "extreme end range" (using
force well beyond what is usually applied to measure passive ROM) in both directions
around each of the 3 orthogonal axes, while other examiners read the gauges and
recorded data. This produced 12 measurements per subject, per trial. In a pilot
involving 5 subjects, each of whom were tested twice, a robust tendency was detected
for increased external rotation (on the side of apparent LLI), ipsilateral inversion,
and contralateral internal rotation inversion to covary. Forced end-range rotational
asymmetries appear more easily measured and reproducible then conventional LLI measurements,
and could ultimately mark an advance in leg checking procedure by serving as a superior
surrogate measure. The investigators are just about to conduct a larger study based
on the pilot, and will present the data at the subluxation conference.
Reliability and Validity of Muscle Palpation as an indicator of Subluxation in the Upper Cervical SpineJoe
Donofrio, DC, Nick Spano, DC and Ed Owens, DCSherman College is engaged in research
to develop objective measures of vertebral subluxation. Muscle palpation is a technique
taught in the curriculum and used routinely in the Sherman College health center,
but has not been well validated as a subluxation measure. The specific aims of this
study will be to:
Three recently trained palpators served as examiners in the study. Each patient was palpated twice by each examiner. In addition, some patients were adjusted between assessments to test the hypothesis that the assessment should be able to detect changes in muscle activity related to subluxation. Assessors were blindfolded so that they did not know which patient was being palpated, or which patients have been adjusted.The
palpation results were scored as right positive, left positive or inactive for each
of 5 muscles in the cervical spine. In addition, the muscle findings were used by
each practitioner to derive an atlas or axis listing, that could be right lateral,
left lateral, neutral or inconclusive (conflicting muscle findings). The data was
evaluated using 3X3 and 4X4 agreement tables and Cohens Kappa was calculated
using a spreadsheet. The results and conclusions drawn from them will be detailed
in the conference presentation.
- test the intra- and inter-examiner reliability of muscle palpation by carrying out cross comparisons of results gained from palpation of patients in the health center.
- test the validity of muscle palpation by testing the effects of adjustment on palpation findings.
Applied Wave Motion into Semifluid Tissue
Dr. Thomas R. Elliott, Jr.
7110 S. Mingo Rd. Ste. 107
Tulsa, Ok 74133
We represent Spinal Orthopedic and Neurological Advancement and Restoration (SONAR) Foundation, a non-profit organization. SONAR's thrust is in five directions: literature search, clinical research, biomechanics improvement, equipment development and teaching. We are presently working on a project with the physics department at the University of Nevada to develop a sonic device to locate specific structures of the bones, providing a more accurate adjusting interface.ABSTRACT The
University of Nevada research involves using ultrasonic transducers to find resonance
frequencies in soft tissue between skin and bone. Models of the neck and bodily soft
tissue were made from tissue mimicking material and pig vertebrae. Resonance frequencies
from samples of known dimensions can be used to calculate sound speed. The objective
is to find the point of a tissue mimicking sample containing bone at which the highest
first resonance frequency is measured, thus finding the minimum distance between
the bone and sample surface. Over a twenty year period with the grace of God Dr.
Elliott developed the ESI adjusting instrument. The ESI instrument is used to reposition
malaligned vertebrae in the human body by introducing both linear and torque forces
in the exact angle and amplitude as determined by x-ray analysis. It has a computer-generated
digital signal that provides complex multiple frequency energy waves which match
harmonic resonances of different sized bones. The ESI instrument offers several advantages.
First, the patented kind of force produced by the instrument moves bones with less
force and more efficiency. Efficiency translates to gentleness. Efficiency results
in quicker recovery and fewer unpleasant recovery symptoms for the patient. Second,
the instrument's self-contained aiming system sets up on the correct three-dimensional
vector several times more accurately than is possible by hand. Accurate vectors facilitate
complete reduction of misalignments. Third, the power levels of the linear and torque
components of the adjusting forces can be exactly controlled. With the ESI instrument,
power levels are dialed in on ten-scales and are totally consistent and repeatable.
With these variables known, accurate research of other individual components of the
adjustment is possible for the first time.
Computerized Fixation Imaging (CFI) findings compared to X-ray analysis.
Dr. Joseph M. Evans, President
Sense Technology Inc.
3251 Old Frankstown Rd.
Pittsburgh PA 15239
This paper presents a comparative study of the results of x-ray
analysis and Computerized Fixation Imaging (CFI) analysis of the cervical spine.
Twenty-five patients seeking chiropractic care at a private clinic were used in the
study. This study was undertaken to answer questions from clinicians using the Sense
Technology PulStarFRAS (Function Recording and Analysis System). These questions
naturally arise regarding the findings of a mature and widely used method of spinal
analysis (x-ray) and this new and rapidly evolving method of objective instrumented
palpation (CFI). Significant major findings were: Eighty-four percent (84%) overall agreement was obtained between the results of x-ray analysis and the results of CFI analysis. Ninety-three percent (93%) agreement was observed between x-ray findings of arthritic joint involvement and CFI analysis and eighty percent (80%) agreement was observed between x-ray findings of discontinuities of cervical spine curvature and CFI analysis. Therefore it may be concluded that there is a high degree of correlation between x-ray analysis and CFI in findings of discontinuities of spinal structure and in observation of evidence of osteo-arthritis. In addition, the CFI analysis is sensitive to soft tissue differences and the scans reflect the existence of muscle spasm as well as structural or arthritic abnormalities. This finding indicates that the CFI analysis methodology has a significant advantage over x-ray analysis in the detection of muscle spasm and related soft tissue abnormalities.
Comparison of Upper Cervical X-ray Listings to Upper Cervical Palpation Listings
John Hart, D.C.
Sherman College of Straight ChiropracticABSTRACT
This study is just getting underway but it is hoped by the time the conference arrives there will be at least ten to fifteen case studies to present.Participants
are being sought from the chiropractic center at Sherman College. The patients are
x-rayed using a four-view cervical series. Immediately following the x-ray examination,
the patients are examined by two faculty clinicians using different palpation techniques.
Neither palpator is aware of the others findings, nor are the two aware of
the x-ray findings. Two other faculty clinicians will analyze the radiographs; neither
will know what the other's findings are, nor will the two know what the other (palpating)
clinician's findings are. The objective is to see how well these two (x-ray and palpation)
analytical tools agree regarding the misalignment component of the vertebral subluxation.
If they agree 100% of the time, then perhaps one of the tools is not needed regarding
its application to the misalignment component of the vertebral subluxation.
Baseline Characteristics of Chiropractic Patients: Correlation of Anatometer Readings with Supine Leg Length Inequality.
Kathryn T. Hoiriis, DC
Roger Hinson, DC
Omar Elsangek, MBBCh
Susan Brown PhD, DC
G. T. Verzosa, DC
Deana Burd, BA
Introduction: The Anatometer is a bio-mechanical assessment tool for use in clinical settings. The device was designed and developed by The National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research Association. [Anderson 1981, Addington 1983, Seeman 1978, Seeman 1991] It has been designed to measure postural distortion in the chiropractic patient. Specifically, the Anatometer allows measurement of the tops of the ilia in the frontal and transverse planes and in the lateral displacement of the spinal column at shoulder level (first thoracic vertebral segment). It also provides measurement of bilateral weight differential (WD).Objective: To assess the postural and weight bearing characteristics of chiropractic patients suffering from low back pain using a device known as an Anatometer and to look for correlation with the leg length inequality (LLI) as observed in the supine leg check. Methods: Subacute
low back pain patients were recruited by advertising and randomly assigned to one
of three groups in a large clinical trial comparing drug therapy to chiropractic
care. The Anatometer was used to record the postural and weight bearing characteristics
(bilateral weight differential (WD). pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic rotation (PR), and
shoulder distortion (SD)) during their initial visit and at 7 subsequent visits over
a two week period. Supine leg length inequality determination was also done at each
visit.The baseline data (pre-chiropractic care) has been recorded in a spreadsheet
awaiting analysis. The analysis being planned is short-term reliability for baseline
weight differentials, stability at the 2 week interval for the average WD1, PT, PR,
SD on the group of placebo patients and inter-rater reliability of WD, PT, PR, SD
and LLI and pair-wise correlations of WD, PT, PR, SD with LLI. References:
- Anderson RT, Initiating Anatometer research. The Upper Cervical Monograph 1981:2(10); 1,9.
- Addington EA, Reliability and Objectivity of Anatometer, supine leg length test, thermoscribeII and derma-therm-ograph. The Upper Cervical Monograph, 1983: 3(6); 6-11.
- Seeman DC, C1 subluxation, short leg and pelvic distortions, The Upper Cervical Monograph, 1978:2(5); 1-5.
- Seeman DC, A comparison of weight differential between a group that hs a shitory of spinal problems or had been under care and a group that had neither a history of spinal problems nor been under care. The Upper Cervical Monograph 1991:5(2);17-19.
The Influence of Upper Cervical Subluxation on Mental Function
ABSTRACTAn ongoing study is being conducted in the private
office setting to assess the influence of the upper cervical subluxation and its
correction on specific mental functions. 34 subjects have been monitored before and
after 4 weeks of upper cervical care via Microcog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning
(Microcog). The population age ranges from 18 to 81 with 22 females and 12 males.
Twelve of these subjects have repeated the examination with a 6 to 12 month long
term follow up. The long-term group had continuous chiropractic care throughout the
study and consisted of 8 females and 4 males, age range between 25 and 64 years.
Microcog is a computer-administered and scored test that assesses neurocognitive
functions in adults. The instrument is intended as a screening device and a diagnostic
tool for use as part of a general neuropsychological examination, or any other clinical
examination requiring the assessment of cognitive functioning. Microcog was designed
to be sensitive to detecting cognitive impairment across a wide age range and takes
into account levels of premorbid intellectual functioning by providing age and education
level adjusted norms. However, the subjects in this study are their own controls
and their post care results are compared against previous scores and not relative
to suggested normative values. Nine categories are scored; attention/mental control,
memory, reasoning/calculation, spatial processing, reaction time, information processing
speed, information processing accuracy, general cognitive functioning, and general
cognitive proficiency. Significant improvements in neurocognitive function have been
observed in the short term (four weeks) as well as long term (6 to 12 months) groups.
This preliminary study suggests a need for further investigation of the relationship
between an upper cervical subluxation and neurocognitive function.
A Neuro-Muscular Model for SubluxationGary
A. Knutson, DCThis presentation seeks to describe a neuro-muscular model of vertebral
subluxation based on nociception and reflex muscle contraction causing misalignment,
asymmetry of motion, relative fixation and associated pain. In the upper cervical
spine, this new neuro-muscular model is proposed to involve abnormal stimulation
of tonic neck reflexes producing the postural distortions - leg length inequality,
pelvic unleveling and foot rotations - associated with atlas subluxation. While the
neuro-muscular guarding reaction to nociception (nocifensive reflex) is well suited
to explain acute subluxation, shortcomings of the nociceptive model - healing of
injured tissues and the fatigue of nociception and muscle contraction - become evident
when considering subluxation as a chronic phenomenon. Unique aspects of muscle physiology
will be explored as potential explanations for chronic subluxation. These properties
of muscle include: thixotropy, which is the tendency of actin and myosin filaments
to stick together during periods of inactivity; post contraction sensory discharge,
which describes increased muscle spindle output after active contraction; critical
force contraction which is the point at which the muscle demands for energy and waste
removal is in equilibrium with vascular supply; and the cerebellar memory of prior
nocifensive events. The neuro-muscular model as applied to atlas subluxation will
be shown to explain clinically noted findings of specific upper cervical practice.
These include misalignment as seen on x-ray, relative fixation, the predominance
of anterior rotation of the atlas in subluxation, the need for specificity of line-of-drive
in correction, the relationship between misalignment and postural distortion, long
term muscular contractions causing postural distortion and the stability of a misalignment
or listing over time. It is hoped that this review of neuro-muscular physiology and
its application to models of acute and chronic subluxation will aid in solving the
complex puzzle that is vertebral subluxation. Key Words: Atlas subluxation, neuro-muscular
model, nociception, flexion reflex, tonic neck reflexes, thixotropy, post contraction
sensory discharge, critical force muscle contraction
INSTRUMENT CERVICAL ADJUSTINGBy Cecil
D. Laney, D.C.In Dr. B.J. Palmer's research, he came to the conclusion that a subluxation
could only occur in the cervical area. If one accepts that concept, he must search
for the procedure that efficiently corrects the cervical misalignment.The procedure
developed by Dr. John F. Grostic has been proven to be the most successful in not
only the cervical correction, but in proving the performance with post-x-rays. Dr.
Grostic's method consisted of establishing an adjustment vector, or path through
space, for each and every conceivable misalignment. The vector was established by
calculating certain anatomical and misalignment factors.The problem was the fact
that very few doctors could develop the skills necessary to send force down the desired
vector. This led a few doctors to come to the conclusion that the procedure had flaws
that needed changing, and they proceeded to establish various modifications or radical
changes. Some of these procedures were so different from the original Grostic procedure
that it is not recognizable. None have proven to be as efficient as a skillful adjuster
using the Grostic vector.Since the accurate adjusting force is so difficult to achieve,
and since the objective is to deliver force down a desired path, it is logical that
an instrument can be built to perform the task. Many doctors have developed adjusting
instruments with varying degrees of success. The most successful have been those
who have stayed with or close to the Grostic adjustment vector.The advantages of
instruments are many. The doctor doesn't have to have supreme athletic skills to
send force down the desired vector. Instruments can be utilized by doctors with certain
disabilities. The adjustment can be precisely duplicated.The latest adjusting instrument
is the one developed for Life University. It is designed to utilize the Grostic procedure,
and will deliver force that theoretically would be delivered by a perfect Grostic
hand-adjustment, which includes the function that hand-torque delivers.
Vertebral Subluxation Complex:Overview of
the Model and Historical Development
Charles A. Lantz, DC, PhD
Director of Research
Life Chiropractic College West
San Lorenzo CA
The Vertebral Subluxation Complex (VSC) is the most widely
acknowledged model of subluxation in current use, but its precise structure and organization
is often. misrepresented and misunderstood. The model consists of a number of components
representing the tissues of the spine integrated into a functional whole. The tissue-level
components represent muscle (myological), nervous (neurological), connective and
vascular tissue elements. The kinesiological component represents the functional
aspects of the tissue components and the inflammatory component represents the transition
from normal to abnormal states. Our understanding of these components rests solidly
on the basic sciences of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry (foundation principles).The
evolution of the VSC model is traced from the simplistic concept of "bone-on-nerve" through the early VSC models to the present state-of-the-art in subluxation theory. Specific details of the evidence supporting the chiropractic concept of subluxation will be presented, including the concept of "immobilization degeneration".Although
the details of the components are sometimes controversial, the basic structure and
organization of the model has withstood even the harshest criticism. Consequently,
the model provides the student and practitioner of chiropractic with a valuable tool
to present and defend chiropractic principles and practice to other professionals
and to patients.The practical application of the model in clinical practice will
be presented as a mapping of each component from basic science knowledge to evaluative
procedure to interventions, thus making the VSC a useful model for organizing chiropractic
curricula, as well as clinical management of subluxation dysfunction.
Evidence of Facilitative Vertebral Subluxation: Biological Events or Mimicry
Robert A. Leach, DC, FICC
Modern theories of the effects of vertebral subluxation upon health center around the concept of a facilitative spinal lesion which impacts upon either visceral or somatic neuronal pools. Sympathetic influence on norepinephrine release which is associated with decreased plasma extravasation in the short term but with increased severity of disease in the long term is one example of the considerable role that neurophysiologists argue the nervous system plays in inflammatory disease. Certainly modulation by the nervous system of sympathetic postganglionic neuron activity would affect the development, severity, and longevity of tissue injury. The
challenge to this area of chiropractic theory does not appear to be whether or not
spinal lesions promote facilitation of neuronal pools, but whether or not this facilitation-whether
by visceral or somatic inputs-can actually cause tissue injury in specific organs
of the body. Some researchers propose that these events do not instigate actual somato-visceral
disease, but rather trigger somatic stimulation syndromes which were previously referred to as referred pain. In this view chiropractic may relieve angina symptoms, for example, because the patients pain is not due to a coronary problem but due to somatic mimicry caused
by a spinal lesion. Chiropractic clinical research of the organic pathophysiology
associated with facilitative vertebral subluxation must clearly document-using
state of the art diagnostic procedures-that indeed an organic component is present.
Post-chiropractic evaluation must clearly demonstrate reduction in that organic
component using those same diagnostic tests. Only then will the pathophysiological biological sequalae of this lesion be clearly elucidated. In sum, we must clearly clinically define what is well from what is dis-ease, using state of the art technology, before we can establish that elimination of the facilitative vertebral subluxation promotes wellness.
The Mears Technique
D. B. Mears Jr. D.C.
31 Locke Drive,
AbstractThe Mears Technique is a specific upper cervical system of X-ray analysis
and adjustment that carries on where the H.I.O. concept ends.The developer of this
technique, Dr. Donald B. Mears Sr., D.C. PhC., was a 1927 graduate of Palmer College.
He was a strong advocate of the H.I.O. technique and practiced it exclusively for
a number of years. In time however, he became somewhat dissatisfied with the inconsistency
of his results and could not understand why in similar cases one would dramatically
improve and one would not respond.The conclusion he reached was simply that in
the case that responded positively, the adjustment given had removed the causative
nerve pressure and had not done so in the unresponsive case. If this assumption
were correct, then it seemed only reasonable that some indication of vertebral
displacement would be evident on X-rays of the cervical spine. With the above in
mind, he began to analytically review past X-rays taken of the cervical area, and
noticed that the disrelationship occurring between the Occiput and the Atlas did
not always appear to be the result of Altas displacement as was assumed in the
H.I.O. analysis.As a result of continuing this line of investigation, a new method
of X-ray analysis evolved which established more reliable points of reference to
determine cervical distortion more accurately. This in turn led to the need to
modify the adjusting procedure used in the H.I.O. technique. The new X-ray analysis
indicated that segment rotation was a major factor in cervical distortion and it
became apparent that a method of adjustment had to be devised which would correct
rotational as well as lateral displacement. What developed was a new method of
adjustment which with the X-ray analysis became the basis for the Mears Technique.
Time-Series Analysis: A Research Method for Field Practitioners
Director of Research
Sherman College of Straight Chiropractic
Field doctors interested in carrying out research in a practice-based
setting are limited in the ethical research designs they can use. Randomized controlled
trials are considered the strongest research design in terms of hypothesis testing,
but they are difficult to perform in a practice because of the need for a control
or comparison group. Case studies are easy to perform, but are usually considered
low in scientific quality. The time-series design, on the other hand, is quite appropriate
in this setting and also can provide strong evidence for the effects of chiropractic
care. In this workshop, we will review the time-series design and its previous application
in chiropractic studies. Of particular interest will be the types of measures used,
methods of controlling bias, and repeatability of measures. Methods of data collection
and analysis will be demonstrated along with manuscript preparation and publication
of the work.Several of the presenters at this years
National Subluxation Conference will present, or have published studies using this
methodology. They will be engaged in discussion to provide their experience regarding
how the research projects impacted or enhanced their practices.
USING CHIROPRACTIC ATLAS ORTHOGONAL TECHNIQUE(AOT)STRUCTURAL
SUBLUXATIONS CAUSED BY ATLAS KINEMATIC DISPLACEMENT(AKD)
Roy W. Sweat, D.C.., B.C.A.0.
Matthew H. Sweat, B.A. D.C.,B.C.A.0.
- Cervical sagittal views
- Cervical frontal views
- Cervical horizontal views
- Thoracolumbar frontal views
- Thoracolumbar sagittal views
- Cervical &Thoracolumbar MRI'S
CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION AND CHIROPRACTIC CARE
Sarah K. Webster, PhD
232 Andover road
Rayne, LA 70578
Objective: This review focuses on research investigations in which cardiovascular physiological responses to chiropractic adjustments have been observed. The primary objective of this review is to correlate published findings with current knowledge and research in physiology, providing some recently accumulated data, and suggesting directions for future research investigations into mechanisms of cardiovascular responses to chiropractic reduction of subluxations. Background: Reduction of subluxations has been shown to decrease blood pressure in normal and hypertensive individuals. Many factors influence blood pressure, even under normal resting conditions. Activity of the parasympathetic nervous system decreases heart rate and, hence, blood pressure; while activity of the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance to blood flow, all of which will increase both systolic and diastolic pressures. Further, the sympathetic nervous system increases the activity of the renin/angiotensin system, resulting in a further increase in blood pressure. Effective blood volume (the blood volume held in the arterial system and contributing to arterial pressure) can also influence blood pressure. Changes in effective blood volume will be influenced by the sympathetic nervous system directly through venoconstriction, antidiuretic hormone, atrial natriuretic hormone, aldosterone, and the intrinsic response of the kidney to decrease urine output in the face of decreased blood pressure. The variables are complex, and which of these variables are being influenced by the subluxation, by the compensatory mechanisms in response to the subluxation, by the direct affects of adjustment, as well as by the reduction of the subluxation have not been determined. Conclusion: There is direct evidence for consistent responses to chiropractic adjustment in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Further detailed studies at the cellular and biochemical levels in these areas, particularly as related to the autonomic nervous system, would provide insight into the mechanisms of the effects of subluxations and the responses to chiropractic adjustments.References:
- McKnight M, DeBoer KF. Preliminary study of blood pressure changes in normotensive patients undergoing chiropractic care. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988; 11:262-6.
- Tran TA, Kirby JD. The effects of upper cervical adjustment on the normal physiology of the heart. J Am Chiro Assoc 1977; 11:58-62.
- Yates RG, Lamping DL, Abram NL, Wright C. Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure anxiety: A randomized, controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988; 11:484-8.
- Plaugher G, Bachman TR. Chiropractic management of a hypertensive patient. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993; 16:544-9.
- Plaugher G, Meeker W, Shelsy A, Lotun K, Jansen R. Randomized clinical trial of chiropractic adjustments and brief message treatment for essential hypertension: A pilot study. Conf Proc Chiro Cent Found 1995; Jul:366-7.
- Mootz RD. Conservative management of patients with mild hypertension. Top Clin Chiro 1995; 2:37-44.
- Hood RP. Blood pressure: Results in 75 abnormal cases. Dig Chiro Econ 1974; 16:36-8.
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